What is Cotton Yarn:
Cotton fiber is the purest source of cellulose and the most significant natural fiber. The economic significance of cotton in the global market is evident by its majority share over 50% among fibers for apparel and textile goods. Both the market value and the quality of cotton products are directly related to fiber quality. Competition with other fibers is affected by innovations and commercialization of other fibers including micro-denier (polyesters and nylons), elastomeric (spandex), and lyocell fibers, among others. Fundamental understanding of the fibers (structural formation during development, chemistry, physics), significant improvement in fiber quality as well as in process innovation and product differentiation are critical to uphold the inter-fiber competitiveness of cotton fibers and the share of cotton fibers in the global apparel and other textile markets. The strength of cotton fibers is attributed to the rigidity of the cellulosic chains, the highly fibrillar and crystalline structure, and the extensive intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen-bonding.
History / Origin of Cotton Yarn:
Cotton grows in warm climates and most of the world’s cotton is grown in the U.S., Uzbekistan, the People’s Republic of China and India. Other leading cotton-growing countries are Brazil, Pakistan and Turkey. In this country, the major cotton producing states are: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee and Texas, Florida, Kansas and Virginia. Mexico found bits of cotton bolls and pieces of cotton cloth that proved to be at least 7,000 years old. They also found that the cotton itself was much like that grown in America today. In the Indus River Valley in Pakistan, cotton was being grown, spun and woven into cloth 3,000 years BC. At about the same time, natives of Egypt’s Nile valley were making and wearing cotton clothing.
Cotton was first spun by machinery in England in 1730. The industrial revolution in England and the invention of the cotton gin in the U.S. paved the way for the important place cotton holds in the world today. The yield in the U.S. averages approximately 1 1/3 bales per acres and about 1,078 pounds of seed. A U.S. bale weighs around 500 pounds. This yield is about twice as much as in 1950 and is due to better land use, improved plant varieties, mechanization, fertilization and irrigation.
Properties of Cotton Yarn:
- Cotton fibers are natural hollow fibers; they are soft, cool, known as breathable fibers, and absorbent.
- They are strong, dye absorbent, and can stand up against abrasion wear and high temperature. In one word, cotton is comfortable.
- Cotton fibers can hold water 24–27 times their own weight.
- Resists static electricity build-up.
- Wrinkles easily.
- Can withstand heat, detergents, and bleach
- Comfortable to wear.
- Natural, cellulosic fiber.
- Made from a cotton boll.
- Absorbs water and “breathes”
Physical Properties of Cotton Yarn:
Tensile Strength: The strength of cotton fiber is attributed to the good alignment of its long polymers i.e. its polymer system is about 70% crystalline, due to the countless continuous hydrogen bond formations between adjacent polymers, and the spiraling fibrils in the primary and secondary cell walls. Cotton is moderately strong fibre; tenacity is 26.5-44.1 cN/tex and tensile strength 2800-8400 Kg/cm^2.
Color: The color of cotton fiber could be white, creamy white, bluish white, yellowish white or grey.
: Relatively it is elastic due to its crystalline polymer system and for this cause cotton textiles wrinkle and crease readily. Cotton is inelastic and rigid fibres at 2% extension it has an elastic recovery of 74% and at 5% extension the elastic recovery is 45%.
Luster: Lineated cotton has no pronounced luster. Therefore in order to make it lustrous they need to be mercerized.
Specific Gravity: Specific gravity is 1.54
Moisture Regain: Standard moisture regain is 8.5%.
Tenacity: Tenacity is 4.0
Effect of heat: Cotton has an excellent resistant to degradation by heat. It begins to turn yellow after several hours at 120°C and decomposes marked by at 150°C. As a result of oxidation, cotton is severally damaged after few minutes at 240°C. Cotton burns in air.
Effects of Age: Cotton shows a small loss of strength when stored carefully. After 50 years of storage cotton may differ only slightly from the new fibers.
Chemical Properties of Cotton Yarn:
Effects of acid: Cotton is attacked by hot dilute acids or cold concentrated acids which it disintegrates. It is not affected by cold weak acids. Cotton fibers are weakened and destroyed by acids.
Cotton has an excellent resistance to alkali. It swells in caustic alkalis but does not damaged. These fibers are resistant to alkalis and are comparatively unaffected by normal laundering.
Effects of Organic Solvents: Cotton has high resistance to normal cleaning solvents. Cotton is dissolved by the copper complexes, such as cuprammonium hydroxide, cupriethylene diamine and concentrated 70% H2SO4.
Effects of Insects: Cotton is attacked by moth-grubs or beetles.
Cotton is easy to dye and print. The classes of dye which may be used to color cotton are azoic, Sulphur, direct, and vat dyes. The polar polymer system easily attracts any polar dye molecules into the polar system.
Effects of micro Organism: Cotton is attacked by fungi and bacteria. Mildew will feed on cotton fabric, rotting and weakling the materials. mildews and bacteria will flourish on cotton under hot and humid condition.
Characteristics of Cotton Yarn:
· Comfortable Soft hand
· Good absorbency
· Color retention
· Prints well
· Good strength
· Drapes well
· Easy to handle and sew
How is Cotton Made into Yarn?
Raw cotton is first spun and twisted, then made into yarn. This process locks the fibers together and gives the yarn strength. The process of making cotton is given below:
· Mechanical Cleaning and Cake Formation. The first step in our process is to run it through a processing machine that opens the dense tufts of fiber from the ginned cotton bales.
· Fiber Finishing.
· Opening and Drying.
Use of Cotton Yarn:
· cotton makes for a soft baby yarn
· make cool cotton knit blankets
· make knitted dishcloths or wash cloths
· produce bags
· household projects
· making light summer tops or blouses
The 10 best Cottons Yarns for Dishcloths:
1. Sugar ‘n Cream Cotton Yarn also available in yarn cones
2. Lion Brand 24/7 Cotton Yarn
3. Caron Cotton Cakes Yarn
4. Spin rite Peaches & Creme Cotton Yarn also available in yarn cones
5. Blue Sky Fibers Organic Cotton Yarn
6. Knit Picks Simply Cotton Organic Yarn (available on Knit Picks)
7. Premier Yarns Cotton Fair
8. Berroco Weekend Cotton Yarn
9. Paton’s Grace Mercerized Cotton Yarn
10. Knit Picks Dishie Cotton Yarn (available on Knit Picks)
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